Cranes are essential when it comes to lifting tasks of all kinds and heavy construction work. They are equipped with pulleys and cables and rely on the application of mechanical principles. Cranes can lift and lower loads beyond the capacity of human construction workers.What are the main parts of a crane?
- Boom: This is the long fixed or telescopic arm used for moving objects.
- Counterweights: These are stabilizers positioned near the cab's exterior barring the crane from losing balance especially when lifting heavy loads.
- Rotex gear: This is a large gear found below the operator's cab, turning at a speed of three revolutions per minute. It gives the crane its ability to maneuver and rotate.
- Jib: This is the projecting arm of the crane which allows the boom to freely extend.
- Lifting capacity: This refers to the amount of weight the device can lift.
- Lift angle: This is a key consideration because a higher angle of lift has a lower lift capacity.
- Lifting range: This refers to where the weight is being lifted to. Some tasks require a larger lifting range to allow for an expansive area of operation.
- Mobility: This refers to the amount of space that is available for the machine to freely carry out its operations.
- Set-up time: Some projects require minimal to no disruptions; therefore, a crane such as the mobile tower ones would be of great benefit.
- Weight and dimensions: How it should be situated is a key consideration. Its mobility and size need to fit in with the limits of the construction site.
- Night working: Appropriate lighting and quieter operations can be a requirement for working at night.
- Tower crane: This is a type of balance crane, commonly found on urban construction sites. It is anchored to the ground, offering an optimum blend of lifting capability and height, which is often needed in the erection of multistory city buildings.
- Mobile crane: These are mounted on a wheeled vehicle. Similarly, floating cranes can be pinned to barges when used in the construction of waterways and bridges.
- Telescopic crane:: These are driven by a hydraulic mechanism. They have concentric tubular steel booms that can be retracted and extended to change the machine's operational height.
- Static crane: This requires that the machine be fitted in a particular place, rather than being moved by itself.
- Giant cantilever crane: It features a tough, steel-braced central tower on to which a mighty double-cantilever beam is fitted. The forward section contains the arm which houses the lifting machinery, and the rear section has a large counterbalancing weight.
- Gantry crane: This type uses a hoist, over which the machinery slides along a rail framework. It employs a tough overhead gantry to maneuver and lift extremely heavy industrial loads.